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Lithium Iodide

Lithium iodide, represented by the chemical formula LiI, is an inorganic compound with constituent elements lithium and iodine [1]. It can be easily identified because exposure to air changes its color from white to yellow due to the formation of iodine by oxidation of iodide [2]. LiI can exist in different hydrate forms, including monohydrate, dehydrate, and trihydrate [3].

Lithium Iodide Identification

CAS Number Lithium iodide: 10377-51-2 [1]

(6L)lithium iodide: 21752-61-4 [1]

(7L)lithium iodide: 29911-74-8 [1]

PubChem CID 66321 [1]
ChemSpider ID 59699 [4]
EC Number Lithium iodide: 233-822-5 [1]

(6L)lithium iodide: 244-572-1 [1]

(7L)lithium iodide: 249-952-0 [1]

UNII S6K2XET783 [1]
InChI Key HSZCZNFXUDYRKD-UHFFFAOYSA-M [1]

Lithium Iodide Formula

How is Lithium Iodide Prepared

Lithium iodide can be synthesized by combining lithium sulfide and strontium iodide, which can be represented by the double decomposition reaction given below [5]:

Li2S + SrI2 → SrS + 2LiI

Another method for anhydrous lithium iodide preparation involves the following reaction of lithium aluminum hydride with iodine in a diethyl-ether medium [6]:

LiAlH4 + 2I2 → 2H2 + AlI3 + LiI

When LiI is dissolved in water, the ions are stabilized by water molecules, giving off energy that is greater than the lattice energy of LiI. The dissolution of lithium iodide is thus exothermic.

Lithium Iodide

Properties and Characteristics of Lithium Iodide

General Properties

Molar Mass/Molecular Weight 133.844 g/mol [1]

Physical Properties

Color and Appearance White crystalline solid [7]
Melting Point 446-469 °C, 834.8-876.2 °F [4, 7]
Boiling Point 1170-1190 °C, 2138-2174 °F [4]
Density 4.08 g cm-3 [7]
State of matter at room temperature (solid/liquid/gas) Solid [7]
Solubility Soluble in water, methanol, acetone, and alcohol; very soluble in an aqueous solution of ammonia [4]
Solubility in Water 1510 g/L (at 0 °C), 1670 g/L (at 25 °C), 4330 g/L (at 100 °C)
Heat Capacity (C)   54.4 J/mol K or 0.381 J/g K
Magnetic Susceptibility (χ) -50 X 10-6 cm3/mol

Chemical Properties

pH N/A
Acid or base N/A

Atomic Properties

Crystal Structure Face-centered cubic lattice

Lithium Iodide Structure

Uses

  • Iodide-based electrolytes containing lithium are potentially used in high-temperature batteries and long-life batteries, including artificial pacemakers [8, 9].
  • Lithium iodide crystals are grown for use as scintillation detectors of neutrons [10].
  • It can be used for cleaving carbon-oxygen bonds, such as the conversion of methyl esters into carboxylic acid.

Lithium Iodide Battery

Is it Safe

Overexposure or repeated exposure can cause skin irritation [1]. Contact with eyes can cause serious eye damage [1].

References

  1. Lithium Iodide – Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  2. Lithium iodide – Chem.libretexts.org
  3. Higher hydrates of lithium chloride, lithium bromide and lithium iodide – Scripts.iucr.org
  4. Lithium iodide – Chemspider.com
  5. Chemical Equation Balancer – Chemicalaid.com
  6. Preparation of anhydrous lithium iodide – Inis.iaea.org
  7. Lithium Iodide – Americanelements.com
  8. All-Lithium, Iodide-Based, Low-Melting Electrolytes for High-Temperature Batteries – Ecst.ecsdl.org
  9. Trends in Cardiac Pacemakers – Ncbi.nlm.ih.gov
  10. Some lithium iodide phosphors for slow neutron detection – Iopscience.iop.org

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