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What is Livermorium

Livermorium (pronounced as liv-er-MORE-ee-em [2]) is a synthetic, radioactive metal [3] denoted by the chemical symbol Lv [1]. Four isotopes of the element with their mass numbers between 290 and 293 have been produced so far. Of them, the most stable one is Lv 293 with a half-life of 61 milliseconds [1]. It belongs to the family of post-transition elements [9].

Where is it Found

It is not found naturally on the earth. Small amounts of the metal have been produced in the lab [1].



Origin of Its name: It is named after the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California, USA [1].

Who Discovered It: A team of scientists led by Yuri Oganessian, Vladimir Utyonkov and Kenton Moody at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia [1].

How Was It Discovered

There were several attempts to make the element, all of which were unsuccessful until 2000 when researchers at JINR synthesized it for the first time. Since the discovery utilized target material supplied by LLNL, the element was named after the facility. It was (is) created in the laboratory by bombarding curium atoms with those of calcium [1].

Livermorium Identification

Atomic Number  116 [1]
CAS Number  54100-71-9 [1]
Position in the periodic table Group Period Block
  16 [1] 7 [1] p [1]

Properties and Characteristics of Livermorium

General Properties

Atomic mass 293 atomic mass units [1]

Physical Properties

Color/appearance Unknown [10]
Melting point/freezing point Unknown [1]
Boiling point Unknown [1]
Density Unknown [1]
State of matter at room temperature (normal phase) Solid (presumably) [1, 2, 3]

Chemical Properties

Reactivity Unknown [8]

Atomic Data of Livermorium (Element 116)

Valence electrons 6 [6]
Quantum numbers
– n 7 [6]
– ℓ 1 [6]
– m -1 [6]
– m s [6]
Electron configuration (noble gas configuration) [Rn] 5f146d107s27p4 [1]
Atomic structure
– Number of Electrons 116 [3]
– Number of Neutrons 177 [3]
– Number of Protons 116 [3]
Energy levels [3]
– First Energy Level 2
– Second Energy Level 8
– Third Energy Level 18
– Fourth Energy Level 32
– Fifth Energy Level 32
– Sixth Energy Level 18
– Seventh Energy Level 6
Radius of atom
– Atomic Radius Unknown [1]
– Covalent Radius 1.75 Å [1]
Electronegativity Unknown [7]
Ionization energy

(kJmol-1) [1]

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th

Livermorium Electron Configuration (Bohr Model)

Uses of Livermorium

Since only a few atoms of the element have been made to date, its use is limited to laboratory research [1].

Can it be Dangerous

The naturally radioactive property of the element makes it potentially harmful [3].

Interesting Facts

  • Both livermorium and flerovium were created by a collaboration between the JINR, Russia and LLNL, USA [1] and they were both given their official names by IUPAC in May 2012 [4, 5] when they were added to the periodic table [12].
  • It was given the temporary name ununhexium (symbol Uuh [13]), denoting its atomic number 116, before getting its official name [3].
  • The city of Livermore celebrates The Livermorium Day on May 30 every year to honor the discovery of the element named after it [11].

Livermorium (Ununhexium) Cost

It is not available commercially and is only produced in laboratories in minuscule amounts [1, 3].



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