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Gabriel Synthesis

Definition: What is Gabriel Synthesis?

The Gabriel synthesis is a chemical reaction that transforms primary alkyl halides into primary amines. It is a type of SN2 reaction, except that it does not produce any ammonium salts. Gabriel synthesis is also called Gabriel phthalimide synthesis because phthalimide is used in this reaction along with a base [1-3].

Gabriel Synthesis

The history of Gabriel Synthesis goes back to 1887 when German chemist Siegmund Gabriel discovered it with his partner James Dornbush.

Example of Gabriel Synthesis

Gabriel synthesis can be used to convert chloroethane into ethylamine.

Gabriel Synthesis Example

Mechanism of Gabriel Synthesis

The reaction takes place through a six-step process [3-6].

Gabriel Synthesis Mehanism


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