Aluminum nitride, referred to as azanylidynealumane in IUPAC nomenclature, is an inorganic compound of aluminum and nitrogen represented by the chemical formula AlN . It is not a naturally-occurring compound and has to be artificially synthesized . It is characterized by high thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity, as well as an excellent corrosion resistance .
Aluminum Nitride Identification
|CAS Number||24304-00-5 [1, 3]|
|PubChem CID||90455 |
|ChemSpider ID||81668 |
|EC Number||246-140-8 [1, 3]|
|RTECS Number||N/A |
|InChI Key||PIGFYZPCRLYGLF-UHFFFAOYSA-N |
How is Aluminum Nitride Prepared
Its synthesis involves carbothermal reduction of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) using gaseous nitrogen at a temperature of 1400-1700 °C :
- Al2O3 + C → Al2O2 + CO
- Al2O2 + 2C + N2 → 2AlN + 2CO
Sintering aids like CaO or Y2O3 are used, and then the mix is hot pressed to produce the dense technical-grade material.
Properties and Characteristics of Aluminum Nitride
|Molar Mass/Molecular Weight||40.989 g/mol |
|Color and Appearance||White to pale yellow powder or sheet [3, 4]|
|Melting Point||2200 °C, 3990 °F |
|Boiling Point||2517 °C, 4563 °F |
|Density||2.9-3.3 g cm-3 |
|State of matter at room temperature (solid/liquid/gas)||Solid |
|Solubility||Slightly soluble in mineral acids, decompose in water solutions containing acids and bases |
|Solubility in Water||Insoluble (monocrystalline form), hydrolyzes (powder form)|
|Thermal Conductivity||80-200 W/K.m |
|Volume Resistivity||1010-1016 Ω.cm |
|Dielectric Constant||9.14 |
|Hardness||1100 Kg/mm2 |
|Thermal Emissivity (100 °C)||0.93 |
|Infrared Refractive Index (300 K)||2.1-2.2 (monocrystals and epitaxial films), 1.9-2.1 (polycrystalline films), 1.8-1.9 (amorphous films) |
|Lattice Constant (300 K) a and c||3.11(1) Å and 4.98(1) Å |
What is It Used for
- A thin film of crystalline aluminum nitride, because of its piezoelectric properties, is used for developing small surface acoustic wave sensors (SAWs) on silicon wafers .
- RF filters in mobile phones consist of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device, called thin film bar acoustic resonator (FBAR), which uses AlN .
- A piezoelectric layer of AlN is used in making micromachined ultrasound transducers (MUTs) that have applications in velocity sensing, robotics, and medical imaging .
- Aluminum nitride nanotubes are used as chemical sensors for detecting toxic gases .
- Currently, there is research into manufacturing light-emitting diodes that use gallium-aluminum nitride-based semiconductors for improved emission efficiency .
Aluminum Nitride Toxicity
Exposure to AlN through mouth, inhalation, or injection may cause bone and lung toxicity . Repeated exposure can irritate the eyes and skin .
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