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Ammonium Nitrite

Ammonium nitrite represented by the chemical formula NH4NO2 or H4N2O2 [1] that bears the IUPAC name azanium nitrite [4] is a compound containing nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen that is soluble in water [6]. It is an ammonium salt and an ionic compound [1].

Ammonium Nitrite

Ammonium Nitrite Identification

CAS Number 13446-48-5 [1]
PubChem CID 26004 [1]
ChemSpider ID 24223 [2]
EC Number 236-598-7 [1]

How to Make it

Ammonium nitrite can be prepared by a reaction between silver nitrite and ammonium chloride that also produces silver chloride [6].

2AgNO2 + NH4Cl = NH4NO2 + 2AgCl

Nitrous acid also reacts with ammonium hydroxide to produce ammonium nitrite and water [7].

HNO2 + NH4OH = NH4NO2 + H2O

Properties and Characteristics of Ammonium Nitrite

General Properties

Molar mass/molecular weight 64.044 g/mol [1]

Physical Properties

Color/appearance White-yellowish crystals [5]
Odor Odorless [6]
Melting point/freezing point Decomposes (explodes at 60°C-70°C) [3]
Boiling point N/A [4]
Density 1.69 g cm-3 [3]
State of matter at room temperature (normal phase) Solid [5]

Chemical Properties

Solubility in water 64.3 g/100g (at 19.15oC) [5]
pH >7 (basic) [6]

Ammonium Nitrite Structure

Prominent Reactions

If the concentrated solution of the compound is heated too strongly, it explodes decomposing into nitrogen gas and water [5, 6].

NH4NO2 = N2 + 2H2O

Ammonium Nitrite Formula

Ammonium Nitrite Uses

  1. As a microbiocide, rodenticide and agricultural pesticide [4].
  2. For the synthesis of nitrogen gas and ammonium cobalt-nitrite [6].
  3. In making explosives [6].

Is It Dangerous

The compound is highly toxic to humans and aquatic animals. It can cause an explosion hazard. Heating it can produce toxic fumes of ammonia and nitrogen oxides [4, 6]

Ammonium Nitrite (NH4NO2) Cost

The unstable compound is extremely difficult to find in its pure form and almost none of the major chemical suppliers sell it for commercial purposes [6].


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  7. Nitrous acid react with ammonium hydroxide –

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