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Darmstadtium

What is Darmstadtium

Darmstadtium (pronounced as darm-STADT-ee-em [2]), represented by the chemical symbol Ds [1], is a synthetic, radioactive element belonging to the family of transition metals [3]. It has 15 known isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 267 and 281. The last isotope has the longest half-life of 4 minutes [1].

Where Is It Found

It cannot be found naturally on earth. Small amounts have been synthesized in laboratories by nuclear bombardment [1, 3].

History

Origin of Its Name: It is named after Darmstadt in Germany, the place where it was first produced [1].

Who Discovered It: Czech physicists Sigurd Hofmann, Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg [1].

When and Where Was It Discovered: It was discovered on Nov 9, 1994, at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Germany [1, 2].

Darmstadtium

How Was Darmstadtium Discovered

Ds-267 was obtained by Albert Ghiorso and his team at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, by bombarding bismuth with cobalt. However, they could not confirm the results of their experiment at the time. In 1994, Yuri Oganessian and Vladimir Utyonkov made Ds-273 at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia by bombarding plutonium with sulfur. In the same year, a team at GSI headed by Armbruster and Münzenberg, bombarded lead with nickel to produce isotope 269. The latter group’s findings gained worldwide recognition and were deemed more reliable giving them the authority to name the element [1].

Darmstadtium Identification

Atomic Number  110 [1]
CAS Number  54083-77-1 [1]
Position in the periodic table Group Period Block
  10 [1] 7 [1] d [1]

Properties and Characteristics of Darmstadtium

General Properties

Atomic mass 281 atomic mass units [4]
Atomic weight 281 [2]

Physical Properties

Color/appearance Unknown [5]
Malleability Yes [9]
Ductility Yes [9]
Melting point/freezing point Unknown [1]
Boiling point Unknown [1]
Density Unknown [1]
State of matter at room temperature (normal phase) Solid (estimated) [2]
Hardness N/A [5]

Chemical Properties

Oxidation states Unknown [1]
Reactivity Unknown [11]

Atomic Data of Darmstadtium (Element 110)

Valence electrons 6d9 7s1 [6, 8]
Quantum numbers
– n 6 [7]
– ℓ 2 [7]
– m 0 [7]
– m s [7]
Electron configuration (noble gas configuration) [Rn] 5f146d97s1 [1]
Crystal structure Bcc (body-centered cubic) [6]
Atomic structure
– Number of Electrons 110 [3]
– Number of Neutrons 171 [3]
– Number of Protons 110 [3]
Energy levels [3]
– First Energy Level 2
– Second Energy Level 8
– Third Energy Level 18
– Fourth Energy Level 32
– Fifth Energy Level 32
– Sixth Energy Level 17
– Seventh Energy Level 2
Radius of atom
– Atomic Radius Unknown [1]
– Covalent Radius 1.28 Å [1]
Electronegativity Unknown [1]
Ionization energy

(kJmol-1) [1]

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th

Darmstadtium Electron Configuration (Bohr Model)

Darmstadtium Uses

Since only a few atoms of the element have ever been made, it is only used for research purposes [1].

Can It Be Dangerous

The radioactive metal is unstable and decomposes quickly into other elements that do not pose a health risk [10].

Interesting Facts

  • It was known by the name ununnilium (un-one; un-one; nil-zero; ium-the standard prefix for all elements) before getting its official name [9, 12].
  • An atomic weight of 281 has earned it the epithet of a super-heavy atom. However, it takes just one-thousandth of a second to decay [9].

Darmstadtium (Ununnilium) Cost

Unknown, as only tiny amounts have been produced in laboratories [1, 3].

References

  1. http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/110/darmstadtium
  2. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele110.html
  3. https://www.chemicool.com/elements/darmstadtium.html
  4. https://hobart.k12.in.us/ksms/PeriodicTable/darmstadtium.htm
  5. https://www.americanelements.com/darmstadtium.html
  6. https://www.schoolmykids.com/learn/interactive-periodic-table/Ds-Darmstadtium/
  7. http://chemistry-reference.com/q_elements.asp?Symbol=Ds&language=en
  8. http://www.chemistry.patent-invent.com/chemistry/elements/darmstadtium.html
  9. http://www.elementalmatter.info/element-darmstadtium.htm
  10. https://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/ds.htm
  11. https://www.webelements.com/darmstadtium/chemistry.html
  12. http://www.actforlibraries.org/an-overview-about-the-chemical-element-darmstadtium/

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