Chemistry Learner

It's all about Chemistry

Nickel

What is Nickel

Nickel (pronunciation NICK-‘l [2]), represented by the chemical symbol or formula Ni [1], is a hard, ductile and malleable element belonging to the family of transition metals [3, 5]. Naturally occurring Ni is a mixture of 5 stable isotopes with mass numbers 58, 60, 61, 62 and 64 [1, 3]. Besides that, it has 23 synthetic isotopes with known half-lives [3]. It doesn’t react with water and oxygen (air) under normal and ambient conditions respectively [6].

Nickel

Where Is It Found

Though the metal is occasionally found free in nature, it is principally found in its ores that are chiefly pyrrhotite and pentlandite (nickel-iron sulfides), millerite and garnierite. It is extracted from its minerals by roasting and reduction methods [1, 3]. A large amount of nickel reached the earth through meteorites that struck it [1].

History

Origin of Its Name: The name is the short form of the German ‘kupfernickel’ meaning either St. Nicholas’s copper or devil’s copper [1].

Who Discovered Nickel: Swedish chemist, Axel Fredrik Cronstedt [1, 2].

When Was It Discovered: Its discovery year is 1751 [1].

How Was It Discovered

Cronstedt, while working in Stockholm in 1751, investigated a new mineral (that is now called nickeline) that was found in a mine at Los, Hälsingland in Sweden. He presumed that it contained copper but what he extracted was a new metal that he named and announced as nickel in 1754. However, many chemists were of the opinion that it was an alloy of arsenic, cobalt, copper and iron though, in reality, they were present only as trace impurities. Pure nickel could be produced and confirmed of its elemental nature only in 1775 by another Swedish chemist, Torbern Bergman [1].

Nickel Metal

Nickel Identification

Atomic Number  28 [1]
CAS Number  7440-02-0 [1]
Position in the periodic table Group Period Block
  10 [1] 4 [1] d [1]

Properties and Characteristics of Nickel

General Properties

Atomic mass 58.693  atomic mass units [1]
Atomic weight 58.693 [1]
Mass number 58 [7]
Molar mass/molecular weight 58.693 g/mol [8]

Physical Properties

Color/appearance Silvery-white [3]
Luster Yes [7]
Melting point/freezing point 1455°C, 2651°F [1]
Boiling point 2913°C, 5275°F [1]
Density 8.90 g cm-3 [1]
State of matter at room temperature (normal phase) Solid [1]
Thermal Conductivity 90 W/(m K) [9]
Electrical Conductivity 1.43X107 S/m [10]
Specific heat capacity 0.440 J/g oC [11]
Specific gravity 8.9 [12]
Resistivity 6.99X10-8 ohm-m [10]
Hardness (Mohs scale) 638 MPa [13]
Yield strength (annealed) 110 MPa [14]

Chemical Properties

Oxidation states/ionic charge 3, 2, 0 [1]
Flammability Yes (Ni powder) [15]

Magnetic Properties

Magnetic ordering Ferromagnetic [4]

Atomic Data of Nickel (Element 28)

Valence electrons 10 [17]
Quantum numbers
– n 3 [16]
– ℓ 2 [16]
– m 0 [16]
– m s [16]
Electron configuration (noble gas configuration) [Ar] 3d84s2 [1]
Crystal structure Cubic face-centered [17]
Atomic structure
– Number of Electrons 28 [3]
– Number of Neutrons 30 [3]
– Number of Protons 28 [3]
Energy levels [3]
– First Energy Level 2
– Second Energy Level 8
– Third Energy Level 16
– Fourth Energy Level 2
Radius of atom
– Atomic Radius 1.97 Å [1]
– Covalent Radius 1.17 Å [1]
Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 1.91 [1]
Ionization energy

(kJmol-1) [1]

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
737.129 1753.027 3395.32 5297 7338.67 10420 12833 15631

Nickel Electron Configuration (Bohr Model)

Nickel Uses

  1. In making stainless steel and other alloys, alkaline batteries and coins [15].
  2. It is used in electroplating and as a catalyst [15].
  3. Making electrical appliances such as electric ovens and toasters [1].
  4. Nickel is added to glass to give it a green color [1].

Nickel Image

Is It Dangerous

Nickel is carcinogenic. It may cause skin and asthma-like allergies. When inhaled or brought in contact, it may adversely affect skin, eyes, nose and lungs [3, 15]. Serious health conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, etc. are also caused by nickel poisoning [18]. However, as a trace mineral required by the human body, it has a number of health benefits [19]. Foods high in nickel are soya beans, chocolate, almonds, nuts and legumes [20].

Nickel Element

Interesting Facts

  • The metal does not rust and is corrosion resistant even when red hot [1, 3].

Nickel Coin

Nickel (Ni Element) Cost

The pure metal is priced at $7.7 for every 100 gram and in bulk, the same quantity costs $1.9 [3].

References

  1. http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/28/nickel
  2. https://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele028.html
  3. https://www.chemicool.com/elements/nickel.html
  4. http://info.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Workshop/advice/coils/mu/
  5. https://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/ni.htm
  6. http://objetoseducacionais2.mec.gov.br/bitstream/handle/mec/10496/reactions/28.htm
  7. http://www.elementalmatter.info/mass-numbers.htm
  8. https://www.webqc.org/molecular-weight-of-Ni.html
  9. https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-metals-d_858.html
  10. https://www.thoughtco.com/table-of-electrical-resistivity-conductivity-608499
  11. http://www2.ucdsb.on.ca/tiss/stretton/database/specific_heat_capacity_table.html
  12. https://www.reade.com/reade-resources/reference-educational/reade-reference-chart-particle-property-briefings/25-specific-gravity-table-metals-minerals-ceramics-substance
  13. http://www.prvky.com/elements/nickel.html
  14. http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=commercially_pure_nickel_270_high_purity_nickel
  15. https://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/1341.pdf
  16. http://chemistry-reference.com/q_elements.asp?Symbol=Ni
  17. https://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Ni.html
  18. https://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/nickel/
  19. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1223/nickel
  20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667300/

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Trending Topics