What is Einsteinium
Einsteinium (pronounced as ine-STINE-ee-em) is a radioactive metal, belonging to the family of transuranium elements, and denoted by the chemical symbol Es. It has 16 isotopes out of which einsteinium-252 is the most stable one with a half-life of 47.1 days [2, 3].
History of Einsteinium
Origin of its Name
The element is named after the renowned German physicist, Albert Einstein [1, 2].
Who Discovered Einsteinium
In 1952, a team of scientists led by American nuclear scientist Albert Ghiorso, discovered it .
When and Where was it Discovered
On 1st November 1952, a thermonuclear bomb explosion had been conducted on a small island near the Pacific Coast. After which, the residual radioactive material collected from the neighboring atoll was sent to Berkeley, California for examination. After a month of thorough analysis of the debris, done by Ghiorso and his teammates Stanley Thompson, Gregory Choppin, and Bernard Harvey, 200 atoms of einsteinium were discovered. Einsteinium-253 with a half-life of about 20 days was the isotope found from the debris that formed during the explosion when Uranium-238 underwent bombardment with neutrons and went through a chain of several decay reactions. However, nothing was officially revealed until 1955, due to security reasons [2, 4].
Classification and Position of Einsteinium on the Periodic Table 
Properties of Einsteinium [1, 2, 3]
|Relative Atomic Mass||252|
|Melting Point/Freezing Point||860°C (1580°F)|
|State of Matter at Room Temperature (solid/liquid/gas)||Solid|
|Thermal (Heat) Conductivity||Unknown|
Atomic Data of the Element [1, 2, 3]
|– m ℓ||0|
|– m s||-1/2|
|Electron Configuration (Noble Gas Configuration)||[Rn] 5f117s2|
|– Number of Electrons||99|
|– Number of Neutrons||153|
|– Number of Protons||99|
|Radius of Atom|
|– Atomic Radius||2.45 Å|
|– Covalent Radius||1.65 Å|
What is Einsteinium Used for
Apart from basic scientific research, related to study of its properties, and production of other elements with a higher atomic number, Es has no commercial applications [2, 5].
- The element was casually referred to as pandamonium by the team of discoverers before getting its official name, as the bomb testing experiment was code-named Project Panda .
- The symbol of einsteinium was initially proposed as E, but IUPAC changed it to Es .
- In 1955, the element was used to synthesize the first sample of the mendelevium .
Cost of Einsteinium
Since the element is synthetically produced in minute amounts, it cannot be found outside laboratory production.